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Granite – is phanerocrystalline hard-grained, medium-grained or short-grained rock resulting from slow cooldown and consolidation of deep magmatic melt. Granite may as well be formed during metamorphic processes, i.e. resulting from granitisation of various rocks. Due to this, some granite massives are believed to be of magmatic and other of metamorphic origin, more rarely – of mixed origin. This is the most widespread rock within the Earth’s crust.

Granite is similar to marble in its colour. As a rule, it is light-grey, but there are other variants – pink, red, yellow, and sometimes green. Granite colour is determined by the dominant mineral, namely – potash feldspar, which along with quartz is the main rock-forming constituent of granite.

Unlike marble, granite has regular grains, moreover many grains are ungeometrical, wchi results from their congested growth during massive crystallisation. Porphyric granites are worth to be mentioned separately, for those, along with the short-grained and medium-grained basic mass, have large crystals of feldspar, quartz and talcum.

The main occurrence mode of granite is represented by so called batholiths, which are enormous massives, from hundreds to thousands square km in area, and 3 – 4 km deep. Granite can be found on all continents. Typically granite structures appear above the surface in those areas, where due to erosion and denudation those sediments have been destroyed, which covered ancient rocks.

In the USA, Atlantic coast, Northern and Central states are rich in granite. In Russia – Ural, Far East, Carelia and Kolsky region, East Siberia and Caucasus are rich in granite.

Granite and marble are both famous for their durability. Those minerals are applied in many areas: granite is used as facework material and in manufacturing of many products (from chimneys to monuments). Crushed or milled granite is used in manufacturing of concrete and road surfaces. Marble is a sought-after material for various products (fountains, chimneys, and interio design items), and for facework of any buidlings (offices and residential houses). Marble boards from pure calcite marble are used in electrical technology. Marble chips are used in construction, and marble powder – in agriculture.

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